Albite
means a white or colourless mineral of the feldspar group.

Alteration
means the chemical and mineralogical changes in rocks caused by addition or removal of materials through the medium of hydrothermal fluids, e.g. silicification.

Anticline
means a fold that is convex upward, or had such an attitude at some at some stage of development.

Anticlinorium
means a broad, regional structural belt consisting of a major anticline containing small anticlines and synclines.

Aqua regia
means a corrosive, fuming, volatile mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, used for testing metals and dissolving platinum and gold. Also called nitrohydrochloric acid.

Argillite
means a rock that is less indurated than shale and more indurated than mudstone, claystone.

Arsenopyrite
means a tin-white mineral (FeAsS) -- arsenic sulphide.

Assay
means an analysis to determine the presence, absence or quantity of one or more chemical components.

Au
means gold.

Atomic Absorption (AA)
means a common analytical method for trace or ultratrace (ppm or ppb level) determination of elements, particularly metals.

Basalt
means dark-colored fine-grained extrusive igneous rock composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Similar in composition to gabbro. Basalt is thought to be one of the main components of oceanic crust

Batholith
means a large, discordant irregular mass of coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock, usually granite, with an exposed surface of more than 100 square kilometres which has intruded the country rock.

Berezite
means quartz-sericite-albite-pyrite alteration of intrusive rocks; usually associated with quartz veining and gold mineralization.

Bismuth
means a white, crystalline, brittle, highly diamagnetic metallic element used in alloys to form sharp castings for objects sensitive to high temperatures and in various low-melting alloys for fire-safety devices.

Chalcopyrite
means a golden-yellow mineral, found in veins associated with igneous rocks, which is the main ore of copper.

Channel Sample
means a sample taken across the face of foundation or a vein to provide an average value.

CIM
means the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum.

Conglomerates
means a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments.

Cretaceous
means the final period of the Mesozoic era.

Diamond drilling
means a method of obtaining a cylindrical core of rock by drilling with a diamond impregnated bit.

Diorite
means a plutonic rock, intermediate in composition.

Dip
means the angle that a structural surface such as a bedding plane or fault surface deviates from the horizontal, measured perpendicular to the strike and in the vertical plane.

Drilling
means an exploration technique whereby cores of rock are acquired for documentation and analysis.

Dyke
means a tabular, near vertical, sheet of intrusive rock that cuts across horizontal to gently dipping planar structures in the surrounding rock.

Electromagnetic
means a geophysical measure of the electrical properties of the rocks.

Exploration geophysics
means an exploration technique whereby the electrical and physical properties of the rocks are measured.

Feldspar
means any group of hard crystalline minerals that consist of aluminum silicates of potassium or sodium or calcium or barium.

Felsic
means containing a group of light-coloured silicate minerals that occur in igneous rocks.

Fire Assay
means an assay technique for precious metals where the sample is fused in a furnace to release the metal.

Fold
means a planar feature, such as a bedding plane, that has been strongly warped presumably by deformation from compressive forces.

Fold axis
means the line that maps the apex of an anticline or the trough of a syncline.

Gabbro
means a black, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock, composed of calcium-rich feldspars, pyroxene and sometimes olivine.

Galena
means a gray metallic mineral (PbS), lead sulphide.

Granite porphyry
means a fine-grained intrusive silicic porphyritic granite or quartz porphyry with an intergrowth texture of alkali feldspar and quartz.

Granodiorite
means a granular rock which has a composition part way between a granite and a diorite.

Greenschist facies
means a metamorphic facies which includes the product of low-grade regional metamorphism.

g/t
means grams per tonne.

Hanging wall
means the upper wall of inclined vein, or that which hangs over the miner's head when working in the vein.

Hornfels
means a fine-grained metamorphic rock composed of quartz, feldspar, mica and other minerals, formed by the action of intrusive rock upon sedimentary rock, especially shale.

Hydrothermal fluid
means a hot fluid, largely water, presumed to have been released from a magma.

Igneous rock
means rock formed by the crystallization of magma or lava.

Indicated Resource
means that part of a mineral resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics, can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed the reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, working and drill holes that are spaced closely enough for geological and grade continuity to be reasonably assumed.

Induced Polarization
means a geophysical exploration method based on the phenomenon that metallic minerals can store an electric charge that is gradually released when the energizing current is removed.

Inferred Resource
means that part of a mineral resource for which quantity and grade or quality can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified geological and grade continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes.

Intrusive
means pertaining to igneous rocks or features formed by the emplacement of magma in pre-existing rock; igneous rocks that crystallize below Earth's surface.

Isoclinal / Isocline
means a fold which has parallel limbs.

JORC
is the Joint Ore Reserve Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy

Jurassic
means the second period of the Mesozoic era.

Lithology
means the study and description of rocks, including their mineral composition and texture. Also used in reference to the compositional and textural characteristics of a rock.

Lode
means an unusually large vein or set of veins containing ore minerals.

Mafic rock
means generally a dark-coloured igneous rock with significant amounts of one or more ferromagnesian minerals (more than 50 percent), such as amphibole, pyroxene and olivine (e.g. basalt, gabbro).

Magmatism
means the process of melting of rocks deep in the Earth.

Metallurgy
means the science and technology of extraction of metals from their ores and the refining of metals.

Metasediments
means a sedimentary rock that shows evidence of having been subjected to metamorphism.

Metasomatism / Metasomatic
means the process by which the chemical composition of a rock is changed by interaction with fluids; replacement of one mineral by another without melting.

Mineralization
means the presence of metallic minerals in rocks.

Native gold
means pure gold, as opposed to comprising part of a gold bearing mineral. It is usually free milling (i.e. can be recovered by gravity techniques).

Neogene
means an interval of geologic time of the Tertiary period, late Tertiary.

Open pit
means surficial mining, in which the valuable rock is exposed by removal of overlying rock or soil.

Ore
means a natural aggregate of one or more minerals which, at a specified time and place, may be mined and sold at a profit or from which some part may be profitably separated.

Orogeny / Orogenic
means the process of mountain formation, especially by a folding and faulting of the Earth's crust.

Orthogonal
means perpendicular.
Permian
means of or belonging to the geologic time, system of rocks, or sedimentary deposits of the seventh and last period of the Paleozoic Era, characterized by the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea, the rise of conifers and the diversification of reptiles and ending with the largest known mass extinction in the history of life.

Placer
means a location where gold is obtained from washing, usually an alluvial or glacial deposit that contains particles of gold or other valuable minerals.

Pleistocene
means an epoch of the Quaternary period.

Porphyry
means texture of igneous rock that contains large crystals in fine-grained ground mass.

Prospect
means a mineralized showing on which exploration work has been performed.

Pyrite
means a yellow mineral (FeS2), iron sulphide.

Pyrrhotite
means a brownish-bronze iron sulfide mineral (FeS) characterized by weak magnetic properties and used as an iron ore and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.

Quartz
means one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust; has a chemical composition of SiO2 and a hardness of seven. Occurs in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks.

Quartz-Monzonite
means a granitic rock in which quartz comprises 10-50% of the felsic constituents.

Radiometric
means an exploration technique whereby the natural radioactivity of the underlying rocks is measured.

Rhyolite
means the fine-grained equivalent of granite.

Sandstone
means a detrital clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-size grains from 1/16 to 2 millimeters in diameter, dominated in most sandstones by quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, bound together by a cement of silica, carbonate, or other minerals or a matrix of clay minerals.

Schist
means any of various medium-grained to coarse-grained metamorphic rocks composed of laminated, often flaky parallel layers of chiefly micaceous minerals.

Sedimentary rock
means rock formed from the accumulation and consolidation of sediment, usually in layered deposits.

Sericite
means white, fine-grained potassium mica.

Shale
means a sedimentary rock consisting wholly of clay particles.

Shear Zone
means planar zone of weakness, similar to a fault, but consisting of several parallel displacement zones, usually over a greater width than a single fault.

Sheeted Veins
means a set of parallel veins or veinlets.

Showing
means a mineralized area of small to intermediate size, situated within the boundaries of a Prospect.

Silica
means silica dioxide (SiO2) crystalline quartz.

Sill
means a tabular sheet of igneous rock intrusion that parallels the bedding planes of the surrounding sedimentary rock.

Siltstone
means a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed mostly of silt-size particles.

Soil geochemistry
means an exploration technique whereby samples of soil are analyzed for metal content.

Sphalerite
means a yellow, brown or black mineral [(Zn,Fe)S], zinc sulphide.

Stock
means a small, roughly circular intrusion of igneous rock (batholith), usually less than 100 square kilometres.

Stockwork
means a mineral deposited as a network of tiny veins spread throughout the country rock.

Stratabound
means an ore deposit which occurs within a specific stratigraphic bed or horizon, but which does not comprise the entire bed.

Stratigraphy
means the study of sedimentary rock units, including their geographic extent, age, classification, characteristics and formation.

Stream geochemistry
means an exploration technique whereby samples of stream sediments are analyzed for metal content.

Strike
means the angle/compass direction between true North and the horizontal line contained in any planar feature (i.e. an inclined bed, dyke, fault surface, bedding plane); also the geographic direction of this horizontal line. Strike is perpendicular to dip direction.

Structures
means the geological features consisting of faults, folds and shears.

Syncline
means a fold that is convex downward, where the youngest strata area in the centre or that had such an attitude at some stage in its development.

Synclinorium
means a broad, regional structural belt consisting of a major syncline containing small anticlines and synclines.

Syn-Folding
means a fold whose limbs close downward, in a convex manner, in strata for which the stratigraphic sequence is unknown.

Syn-Orogenic
means a geologic process or event occurring during a period of orogenic activity, or a rock or feature so formed.

Tectonic
means regional structural events related to mountain building.

Terrigeneous
means derived from the land, especially by erosive action. Used primarily of sediments.

Tonne
means a metric ton consisting of 1,000 kilograms.

Trenching
means an exploration technique whereby trenches are dug to expose potential ore for geological examination.

Triassic
means the first period of the Mesozoic era.

Veinlets
means small veins.

Volcanic Rock
means a rock formed by volcanic activity.

Volcanic Tuffs
means volcanic ash beds.

Wet Chemical Analysis
means an assay technique whereby aqua regia digestion of a 30 gram sample of pulp is taken into solution and analyzed by atomic absorption.